American social psychologist, Douglas McGregor, created two different theories on human motivation and management in the 1960s: Theory X and Theory Y. Summary — Theory X vs Theory Y The difference between theory X and theory Y is that theory X employees are associated with negative traits whereas theory Y employees are associated with positive traits. This allows the individual to receive either a direct reward or a reprimand, depending on the outcome's positive or negative nature. In contrast, in theory, Y, the assumption is that employees do not need much supervision for the completion of the task and also in the accomplishment of organisational objectives. The second, often called the participative approach, focuses on the desirability of involving organization members in decision making so that they will be more highly motivated.
In such environments management is going to be more focused on providing real leadership which inspires employees to perform at their best. On the basis of above assumptions, it is concluded that the management is held responsible for organising resources, for the firm, with the aim of economic gain. On the other hand, if you also have a product assembly line or some other repetitive-task arena, it is likely that the employees in that setting are not particularly driven on their own. Conversely, Theory Y is based on the assumption that an average human being is motivated towards growth and development and they contribute to the achievement of organisational goals. I can live with that, though. Work Dislikes work Work is natural Ambition Little to no ambition Highly ambitious Responsibility Avoids responsibility. Even with our limited knowledge, however, there are indications that people will gradually gravitate into organizations that fit their particular personalities.
This site makes no representations, warranties, or assurances as to the accuracy, currency or completeness of the content contain on this website or any sites linked to or from this site. Consider work as a natural part of life and solve work problems imaginatively This more participative management style tends to be more widely applicable. This approach can potentially yield a hostile, minimally cooperative workforce that may cause resentment towards management. Theory X To get started, we are going to take a look at the basic ideas behind Theory X. Participative management and employee empowerment are trends that have coincided with increased emphasis on management coaching styles. See for example Paul R.
Definition of Theory X Theory X is a traditional model of motivation and management. Theory Y Characteristics Now that you know the difference between Theory X and Theory Y managers, let's go a little deeper into the characteristics of a Theory Y manager. Theory X managers believe all actions should be traceable to the individual responsible. Please use it as such. But these organizations had two very important things in common. The rationale for the drawn-out time frame is that it helps develop a more dedicated, loyal, and permanent workforce, which benefits the company; the employees, meanwhile, have the opportunity to fully develop their careers at one company.
Competence Motivation Because of the difference in organizational characteristics at Akron and Stockton, the two sites were strikingly different places in which to work. Theory Y encourages decentralization of authority, teamwork and participative decision making in an organization. Employees are given an opportunity to develop themselves and put their capabilities to good use. Thus: The first part asked a participant to write creative and imaginative stories in response to six ambiguous pictures. Morse, Internal Organizational Patterning and Sense of Competence Motivation Boston, Harvard Business School, unpublished doctoral dissertation, 1969. This managerial style is more effective when used in a workforce that is not essentially motivated to perform. In this article, we are going to talk about the major differences between Theory X and Theory Y.
In her off-time, Tyler enjoys spending as much time as possible with her two amazing kids and husband. This ensures work stays efficient, productive, and in-line with company standards. Initially, they will focus on hobbies, committee and voluntary work, but eventually this could result in a hunt for another job. It assumes that employees are self-motivated and see work as being a natural and enjoyable part of life. As against, democratic leadership style is adopted in the case of theory Y.
For example, a hands-off manager may ask the staff to help interview a new candidate that has just applied for a job. If properly implemented, such an environment can increase and continually fuel motivation as employees work to satisfy their higher-level personal needs through their jobs. Conclusion Though these theories are very basic in nature, they provide a platform for future generations of management theorists and practitioners to understand the changing dynamics of human behavior. Since, as we indicated earlier, our primary concern in this study was to link the fit between organization and task with individual motivation to perform effectively, we devised a two-part test to measure the sense of competence motivation of the individuals at both sites. This website is owned and operated by Psychometric Success Ltd. Administration in Social Work: 356. Equally important, does a less formalized organization always provide a high level of motivation for its members? An X theory manager usually categorizes someone with their own problems, so try not to give them any more.
This allows the employee to design, construct, and publish their work in a timely manner in co-ordinance to their workload and projects. Basic needs are physiological, such as food, water, and sleep; and psychological, such as affection, security, and self esteem. This style makes the assumption that so must come from an external source—the manager. He holds a Master of Business Administration from Iowa State University. At the same time, the approach based on Theory Y, while it has produced good results in some situations, does not always do so. Under Theory X, one can take a hard or soft approach to getting results.
The underlying idea with Theory X management style is that humans are inherently lazy and will only work if the manager is forcing them to work. When an organization does not respond to this, employees will start looking for possibilities to deploy their skills outside their work. Management use of Theory X and Theory Y can affect employee motivation and productivity in different ways, and managers may choose to implement strategies from both theories into their practices. Please reference authorship of content used, including link s to ManagementStudyGuide. Kokemuller has additional professional experience in marketing, retail and small business.
Theory Z also makes assumptions about company culture. Avoid responsibility and need to be directed. This was essential, given the nature of their task. Although this interrelationship is complex, the best possibility for managerial action probably is in tailoring the organization to fit the task and the people. Management believes employee's work is based on their own self-interest.