Just what is a footnote? Should You Use Footnotes or Endnotes? When used properly, a footnote is an excellent way to add to work or to quickly cite or reference quotes and other secondary information. To be able to compose this type of paper, the student has to import all of his or her caution that has been gathered in and out of class. Point to Reference on the Insert menu, and click Footnote, whereby Footnote and Endnote dialog box will appear. A reader may believe you are trying to hide something by burying it in a hard-to-find endnote. If you're going to be , you'll have to worry about writing equations and formatting tables, but if you're working on an you might be more concerned about using block quotes correctly or creating subheadings. Sample Footnote 6 Text within the research paper: The development of aptitude with technology in young children should not overshadow the necessity of play which is crucial to building important gross and fine motor skills in early childhood. If you're paraphrasing someone else's ideas-that is, you're not quoting word-for-word but you're restating an original idea that came from another person's work-then you need to use a citation.
In a work containing many long footnotes, it may be difficult to fit them onto the pages they pertain to, especially in an illustrated work. Visual Documentation Illustrations Art history papers require visual documentation such as photographs, photocopies, or scanned images of the art works you discuss. You create an endnote or footnote using your word processor. These writers have largely revived the digressive function of the footnote. These are all examples of footnotes in different contexts. Afterwards, the surname of the author and the page number is sufficient. Your language must be clear if the reader has to understand what you have written and you should also write by demonstrating what the reader has to learn about.
What to cite: Deciding what material to cite can be tricky. Citation of a different quote from the same book: 11 Catechism 1499. Of course, footnotes may also contain textual material of your own doing. The writing of footnotes is just one of the components of a good research paper. How to Write Footnotes - Protocols If you are using footnotes, the common convention is to insert a full citation, including author, year and the title of the book, followed by the page number. You are probably not documenting something that does need to be documented. You can also manually instruct the program to include or override page numbers in the footnote through the use of a switch.
The best thing to do is to include this information as a textual footnote. Examples of first Footnotes or Endnotes, subsequent Footnotes or Endnotes, and listings on Works Cited or References page: Reference from the Bible, Catechism, or Sacred Texts: Example in text: An interesting reference was made to the picking of corn on the Sabbath. Footnotes are numbered consecutively throughout a research paper, except for those notes accompanying special material e. In general, to avoid interrupting the continuity of the text, footnote numbers are placed at the end of the sentence, clause, or phrase containing the quoted or paraphrased material. And remember the cardinal rule: whatever style you have been asked to use, stick to it. Consult with your professor about which form to use and always remember that, whichever style of citation you choose, apply it consistently throughout your paper. Smith, Tim Sampson, and Alex J.
For example, should an author wish to include an interesting fact or comment about one of the statements made in the paper, but that comment is seemingly irrelevant to the argument being presented, they may choose to include that information in a footnote. If you are using endnotes, the note will appear together with all other notes on a separate page at the end of your report, just before the bibliography. In addition to research papers footnotes are also used in citing sources for various types of essays as well. Your decision depends on the stylistic format established by your instructor. In general, the use of footnotes in most academic writing is now considered a bit outdated and has been replaced by endnotes, which are much easier to place in your paper, even with the advent of word processing programs. The effects of trust in authority and procedural fairness on cooperation. You should also remember that this paper will be used as an edification paper for other students seeking to write research documents.
Citing a part of a work When citing a specific part of a work, provide the relevant page or section identifier. Footnotes In A Research Paper footnotes in a research paperA footnote is a reference,. Bibliographic footnotes can also include information about the source if it's relevant. If you are using a different version of Word, see your word processor documentation for assistance. In Word 2000, choose Footnote from the Insert menu. Of course, flipping between pages of text and pages of endnotes is tiring as well.
This anecdote can be included in the footnotes-basically, it's a place to stash information that's interesting but that would interrupt the flow of your paper. If your instructor prefers that paragraphs not be indented, you must still double-space your lines, but you will need to quadruple-space between paragraphs. In this case, footnotes are reserved for supplementary information. A few footnote usage rules: Footnotes are numbered consecutively throughout the research paper, not rebeginning the numbering on each page. For example, if the main paragraphs of your essay include reference to work written by someone other than yourself, you must acknowledge the quote or reference, in parenthesis, and follow this up with the surname of the original author and the page number indicting where the reference can be found in the originating source.
Citing indirect sources When an original source is unavailable, then cite the secondhand source — for instance, a lecture in a conference proceedings. Staple the pages together at the upper left or put them in a simple three-ring folder or binder. Moreover, some publishers frown upon them, as it makes book typesetting and page formatting harder and more costly. They distract and confuse the reader. Adding a Citation to a Footnote or Endnote Footnotes are placed at the bottom of the page on which the reference appears. New York: New York University Press.