The hard approach results in hostility, purposely low output, and extreme union demands. Theory X managers and Theory Y managers often see their perceptions of people confirmed. Theory X starts from the assumption that people are naturally lazy, want to avoid work as much as possible, do not wish to take responsibility, have no ambition and prefer to be supervised. Authoritarian management style is applied by the management, where the managers closely monitor and supervise each employee. Next, the management directs the efforts of the employees and motivate and control their actions, to make them work as per the needs of the organisation.
Your rating is more than welcome or share this article via Social media! When an organization does not respond to this, employees will start looking for possibilities to deploy their skills outside their work. Thus, theory X and theory Y are two contrasting models that depict the set of assumptions a manager holds on his employees, which may or may not coincide with their general way of behaving. Under Theory X, one can take a hard or soft approach to getting results. Definition: Theory X and Y are 2 contrasting and models developed by Douglas McGregor. Or do you think that they see it as a burden, and simply work for the money? Theory X assumes humans inherently dislike working and will try to avoid it if they can. This article and video will explore McGregor's theory further, and we'll look at how it applies in the workplace. According to Theory Z, people want to maintain a work-life balance, and they value a working environment in which things like family, culture, and traditions are considered to be just as important as the work itself.
These theories continue to be important even today. Thus, he encouraged cordial team relations, responsible and stimulating jobs, and participation of all in decision-making process. McGregor proposed that there were two types of managers: ones who assumed a negative view of their employees, also known as the Theory X managers, and others who assumed a positive view of workers, or the Theory Y managers. Definition of Theory Y Theory Y is a modern approach on motivation, put forward by McGregor. Or maybe you've lucked out and your superiors really encourage you to be yourself. Businessballs Ltd assumes no responsibility for any errors or damages arising. Little to no direction is required.
He likes to lead rather than to be led by others. Theory X Theory X managers tend to take a pessimistic view of their people, and assume that they are naturally unmotivated and dislike work. As against, democratic leadership style is adopted in the case of theory Y. Although both styles of management can motivate people, the success of each will largely depend on your team's and your organizational objectives. In fact, he can even learn to obtain responsibility.
It harmonizes and matches employees needs and aspirations with organizational needs and aspirations. According to Douglas McGregor, there are two categorizations of what motivates people: Theory X and Theory Y. The required management style in this model would be participative and soft. Theory X What motivates you to work hard? However, there should be formalized measures in place to assess work quality and performance. Principle of theory Y The central principle of Theory Y is that of integration: individuals can achieve their own goals by also focusing their efforts on the objectives of the organization they work for.
Avoiding confrontation unless you are genuinely being bullied, which is a different matter and delivering results are the key tactics. As such, it is these higher-level needs through which employees can best be motivated. It implies that employees are reluctant to organizational changes. In the 1960s, social psychologist Douglas McGregor developed two contrasting theories that explained how managers' beliefs about what motivates their people can affect their management style. Disclaimer: Reliance on this material and any related provision is at your sole risk. The use of this material is free for self-development, developing others, research, and organizational improvement. The required style in this model would be authoritarian and hard.
This encourages a more , relationship between managers and their team members. Theory Y assumes that people are inherently happy to work , they want to exert themselves and they are motivated to pursue objectives. Yoko assumes that her employees are full of potential and that it is her role as a manager to help develop that potential so that the employee can work towards a common organizational goal. Theory Y assumes that people view work as being as natural as play and rest and spend the same level of effort on it. If properly implemented, such an environment can increase and continually fuel motivation as employees work to satisfy their higher-level personal needs through their jobs. Two distinct sets of that managers, in , have about their employees and which often turn out to be self-fulfilling prophesies. This is really an approach toward management and leadership.
There are four main stages in the succession planning process, which involve transition movement of new role , initiation, selection, and education. Theory Y: Theory Y relies on the participative style of management, where the managers assume that the employees are self-directed and self- motivated to accomplish the organizational objectives. However, one person who seemed to be unafraid of self-inflicted explosions was Douglas McGregor, a behavior management theorist who was heavily influenced by both Abraham Maslow and the. The benefits of Theory Z, Ouchi claimed, would be reduced employee turnover, increased commitment, improved morale and job satisfaction, and drastic increases in productivity. Yoko must also try to harness the motivational energy of her employees through things such as giving them more autonomy, responsibility, power, trust and feedback and involving them in the decision-making process. Many managers tend towards theory x, and generally get poor results.
Theory Y Yoko is a , and when I say Y here, think 'why not. Theory Y has become more popular among organizations. Theory Y implies that the managers should create and encourage a work environment which provides opportunities to employees to take initiative and self-direction. Management professor William Ouchi argued that Western organizations could learn from their Japanese counterparts. Lesson Objectives Once you complete this lesson you'll be able to understand the two different types of managers as theorized by Douglas McGregor. Link to this page: Theory X and Theory Y. This lesson describes the two types of managers you might have, Theory X and Theory Y.
The Assumptions of Douglas McGregor Much like a bomb, assumptions are a dangerous thing to make - just the slightest little mistake and you can end up blowing yourself up! Description: Theory X and theory Y follow different methodologies of keeping people motivated. In contrast, based on theory Y, employees concentrates on Social needs, esteem needs and self-actualization needs. A close supervision is required on part of managers. Conversely, if you adopt a Theory Y approach that gives people too much freedom, it may allow them to stray from their key objectives or lose focus. On the other extreme, Theory Y is diametrically opposite to theory X which shows the modern and dynamic approach to individuals and relies on the assumptions that are practical in nature. Lesson Summary Douglas McGregor believed that there were two types of managers: Theory X and Theory Y.