In the preoperational stage, the teacher would have to use actions and verbal instruction. It is during this stage the child experiences his or her own world through the senses and through movement. Both Bruner and Vygotsky emphasize the social character of learning, citing that other people should help the child to develop their skills through the process of scaffolding. And this is where their similarities end. Although, both Piaget and Vygotsky believed that there was a natural progression in development from child to adult, the similarities end there. Cognitive development theory makes sense of one's environment and physiological conditions at which an individual interacts and functions to provide a system by which the process of learning and teaching might understood and controlled for. It is also important to note that Piaget stated that a child either held the mental structure for conservation, for example, or he did not.
The last one is the equilibration which Piaget believed that a child at this point has the abilities to balance information back and forth in order to practise and get the information restored. People in this stage also imagine the best possible solutions or principles, often through the ability to think ideally Woolfolk, A. The zone is the area at which a child can perform a challenging task, given appropriate help Woolfolk, A. Further, Piaget had less interest on the social development theory. A child in the preoperational stage could not be taught to understand the liquid volume experiment; she does not possess the mental structure of a child in concrete operations. Piaget used ideas influenced by biology to explain children's development; for example, assimilation and accommodation are vital concepts in his theory. Both authors have contributed to the field of education and psychology, offering explanations about how learning occurs and cognitive development at an early age.
Another point is the collaborative learning when a group of children work together to learn or to achieve a goal Gross, 2010. A teacher can only fix what can be perceived, so if the mode of logic used to answer the problem is flawed in any way, a teacher could help correct that flaw. Cognitive development varies and differs depending on culture and time. A child starts learning the new concept by imitating, then imitating and understanding, then internalizing the concept. For Vygotsky, the environment in which children grow up will influence how they think and what they think about McLeod, 2007. Abstract thinking is not possible. In his studies and observances, Vygotsky focused on the way that social interactions and connections to inform his understandings.
He believed that through social interaction the child has the potential not only to solve problems but also use different strategies for the future. It is also at this stage, that the child learns how to crawl and then walk. Firstly, it is important for a teacher to focus on how a student solves a problem, and not on the final answer. The cognitive structures of children develop over time. Piaget believed that intelligence came from action. Piaget's theory states that children's cognitive development goes through four stages of cognition as they actively synthesize new information with current knowledge. In other hand, Vygotsky suggest that language is the fundamental basis for the children cognitive development Gross, 2010.
He argued that language and communication depends solely on the development of thinking. As the child interacts with others, the values and norms that are embedded in a culture are transmitted to the child where it affects his cognitive development. All intelligence is acquired through this physicality. Social interaction takes place mainly to move a young child away from egocentricism. Both Piaget and Vygotsky provided highly influential theories which had impact on the way children are taught. Teaching children in the concrete operations stage involves hands-on learning, as well.
Implications of sociocultural theory for teaching and education are profound. The teacher must be sensitive to the fact that these children, according to Piaget, are still egocentric and may not realize that not everyone shares the same view Woolfolk, A. While Piaget believed this to be egocentric, Vygotsky saw self-talk as a tool of direction that assists thinking and guides the actions of individuals. Guided discovery involves the teacher offering intriguing questions to students and having them discover the answers through testing hypotheses Woolfolk, A. He believed that social interaction came before development and that consciousness were the end product of all social behaviour.
Piaget expressed that the three fundamental contemplating abilities obtained amid this stage had been a persona, remuneration, and reversibility. He believed that children value input from their surroundings and from others. Both have contributed to the field of education by offering explanations for children's cognitive learning styles and abilities. Piaget and Vygotsky were contemporaries, both studying child psychological development during the early 20th century. Vygotsky believed that children receive this information from more capable peers or adults. For example, in the case of Piaget, when the child realizes that a new idea does not fit with a prior knowledge, and then it is necessary that it seeks a new response to allow the balance. This is because they have two learning theories with a lot of differences, but still impacting on understanding the cognitive development of early learners.
Learning is not possible until the learner is developmental able to receive the information and skill. While Piaget and Vygotsky may differ on how they view cognitive development in children, both offer educators good suggestions on how teach certain material in a developmentally appropriate manner. Although Bruner proposes stages of cognitive development, he does not see them as a representation of the different independent modes of thought at different points of development such as Piaget. They both believ that egocentric speech is important to a childs development. This approach also gauges the students cognitive development Slavin, 2006. Teachers should also make sure that students are provided adequate tools for learning. His theory describes and explains the changes that occur in logical thinking at these ages.
Both Piaget and Vygotsky both believed that the environment influenced intelligence. Around this time, another psychologist was offering his views on child cognitive development. But Vygotsky focused on the social part of the cognitive development Gross, 2010. Vygotsky assumed that there are no set of stages at all but only 3 components. Like Piaget, Vygotsky believed that there were some problems out of a child's range of understanding.
They have both been used to inform pedagogical methods that are regularly used in early childhood learning. Because development in adulthood is primarily social rather than biological Neugarten, 1964 , the classroom experience can be a powerful means to support this process of cognitive and social constructivism. Understudies inside the later basic years, as per Piaget, research best by way of hands-on revelation learning whereas working with substantial devices. During this stage, infants are developing their sensory motor skills and cognition. Thinking remains egocentric and centered. They also become concerned with their future and start to form its image in their minds.