Indeed, after Herder served as preacher in the small court of Bückeburg from 1771 to 1776, Goethe had him appointed as the General Superintendent of Lutheran clergy in the Duchy of Weimar, where Goethe himself was the chief minister. Presumably this can be reconciled with Kant's earlier claim that the sublime is the most appropriate symbol of morality by observing that while the experience of beauty makes the freedom of the will palpable to us, it is only the mixed experience of the sublime that brings home to feeling that this freedom must often be exercised in the face of resistance offered by our own inclinations. This might be understood as an early form of debate over how much room there is for the free play of imagination in aesthetic experience. Because they shared with Gottsched the general assumption that art is based on the imitation of nature and has the goal of making important moral truths come alive for us, it is hard to see exactly what divided the two sides in this dispute, but the key seems to lie in their conception of poetic fables. Letters upon the Aesthetic Education of Man. Walau bagaimanapun, surat mempertimbangkan sifat Kecantikan dan hubungannya dengan seni dan manusia. We treasure the silent creativity of life in them, the fact that they act serenely on their own, being there according to their own laws; we cherish that inner necessity, that eternal oneness with themselves.
اینجا هم کلیت حرف شیلر جالبه - اینکه باید بین حس و عقل، بین ثبات و تغییر، بین ضرورت و آزادی، بین شهروند و دولت و. But Schiller says that perhaps Experience as such is not the best place to go looking for positions of judgment. But in his emphasis on the role of the body as well as the mind in aesthetic experience, Mendelssohn goes beyond his successors. It requires a thousand preparations, a thousand circumstances, much knowledge, conviction, experiences, examples and encouragement…. This in turn means that the subject matter is more free, making comedy the more free art.
In some ways his argument stems from the idea that if the revolutionaries were perfectly educated in the ideas of aesthetics they would have been able to escape their own power struggles and thus have been able to create a Just and Free French State. Thus Baumgarten turns what is a vice in scientific knowledge—connoting too many ideas without clearly distinguishing among them—into the paradigm virtue of poetry. Herder insists that visible beauty arises only from the most superficial features of objects, not from their full reality, and that only feeling—by which he here means the sense of touch—can put us into direct contact with reality, or with the deeper truth about physical reality. Herder turns Lessing's distinction between natural and artificial signs against him, arguing that precisely because poetry uses artificial rather than natural signs its content is in no fundamental way constrained by the natural properties of its signs themselves. Wholeness has been fragmented, and the world is held together by antagonisms. Schiller admired classical Greece and its art and saw the role of history and freedom important in the discussion of the nature of art. How different are we moderns! Instead, Herder argues that the phenomenon of distance that Riedel mistakenly characterizes as general quality of disinterestedness in all aesthetic response is a specific feature of the visual perception of beauty, indeed that beauty is properly speaking a property only of the visual.
From Goethe, Schiller fashioned his image of the ideal artist. Dette åpner for uendelige muligheter, ettersom vi ikke kun får muligheten til å gi objekter verdi, men også vår tilstand — friheten finner plass. Do not read them all unless you want to , but use them as an example of some of the views and ideas that are Schiller touches upon. Bodmer 1698—1783 taught Swiss history in Zürich for forty years, advocated the works of Dante and Shakespeare, and translated Milton's Paradise Lost into German prose. Lessing thus touches upon the new idea that aesthetic response is based on the free play of our mental powers stimulated by an object, in his case always by a work of art, and he exploits several of Mendelssohn's theoretical tools.
Không hiểu phim này liên quan gì đến cái quyển sách sau khi xem phim xong hai lần. In holding that the real source of our pleasure in beautiful objects is our sensation of our own representational activity Sulzer is led to identify aesthetically valuable forms of sentiment that are not caused by beauty at all. Thus those who desire happiness for themselves naturally desire it for others as well, and those who desire happiness in the form of the pleasure of aesthetic experience for themselves will naturally desire it for others as well. Energizing beauty, he says, tenses us: it braces our nature and encourages prompt reaction. Når jeg nå har lest Friedrich Schillers 27 brev - 27 brev som ikke går så rent lite i dybden og ikke i liten grad går skjønnhetens vesen etter i sømmene - og prøver å samle tankene mine, faller det meg vanskelig å finne adekvat uttrykk for hva jeg tenker. In politics, the form drive results in abstract principles; the sense drive results in lawlessness. In the case of rhetoric, moreover, there was a long tradition going back to antiquity of formulating rules for how persuasion can be achieved, and perhaps this made it seem like more of a science than an art to Mendelssohn.
Because humans are natural creatures, they are susceptible to pleasure and pain. For Meier, moving our emotions is not just some small part of the beauty of art, as Baumgarten seems to suggest. In a passage that points more toward Arthur Schopenhauer than to Kant, Moritz next writes: The sweet astonishment, the agreeable forgetting of ourself in the contemplation of a beautiful work of art, is also a proof that our gratification here is something subordinate, that we voluntarily allow ourself to be determined through the beautiful, to which we for a while concede a sort of sovereignty over all our own feelings. We contemplate the beauty of nature and of art, without the least arousal of desire, with gratification and satisfaction. After studying what philosophers have to say on this topic, it is refreshing to read the philosophical reflections on aesthetics by Friedrich Schiller 1769-1805 , a man who was not only a first-rate thinker but a great poet and playwright. His masterpiece Jerusalem, or on Religious Power and Judaism, in which he argued for the civil rights of the Jews by arguing that the state had no right to recognize any religion at all and therefore must allow all religions freedom from interference, was published in 1783.
Remembered by philosophers primarily as the respondent at the defense of Kant's inaugural dissertation On the Form and Principles of the Sensible and Intelligible World in 1770 and as the recipient of Kant's letters describing his progress on the Critique of Pure Reason in the following decade, Herz had a significant career of his own, as a physician and medical writer, as a lecturer on philosophy, and as the author not only of the earliest exposition of Kant's philosophy, but also of an independent and important work in aesthetics. Immanuel Kant's only significant work in aesthetics, the Critique of the Power of Judgment, came late in his life, at the end of the extraordinary decade in which he had published the Critique of Pure Reason 1781, revised 1787 , the Prolegomena to any future Metaphysics 1783 , the Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals 1785 , the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science 1786 , the Critique of Practical Reason 1788 , and a host of important essays on history, science, and theology as well as philosophy. This pure appearance theoretically exists but in practice, may only be glimpsed in brief, rare moments and may never be properly realised. Herder did, however, restate its most important ideas in Sculpture: Some Observations on Shape and Form from Pygmalion's Creative Dream, begun in 1770 although itself not completed and published until 1778. In fact, Mendelssohn's analysis of our mixed emotions in the experience of tragedy is even more subtle than this, for a further aspect of it is that our knowledge that we are experiencing represented rather than real people allows us to enjoy sympathy with the perfections of the noble characters who are depicted rather than pity at their weaknesses or at the fate that overcomes them.
This is the side on which the faculty of approval touches demand or desire. Although Meier thus published his main treatise in aesthetics before Baumgarten did, he claimed it was based on Baumgarten's lectures, and always presented himself as a disciple of Baumgarten. When we are hungry, a virtual dinner will not do: we want the meat and potatoes. His underlying idea is that we experience a beautiful object as having the kind of unity that we ordinarily find in objects by subsuming them under a determinate concept, but independently of any such subsumption. Denne boken er god — å lese figurer fra opplysningstiden skrive «Sapere Aude! The guiding laws of art do not take their form from a changing and often quite degenerated contemporary taste, but are founded in the necessity and eternity of human nature, in the original laws of the spirit. Because comedy and tragedy also foreground incongruities, Schiller considers them related forms.