Great care was taken to keep the activities of the two organizations in South Africa distinct. And I shall now tell the Court how that form of violence came to be determined. On 1 May 1950, eighteen Africans died as a result of police shootings during the strike. The government carefully choreographed the trial to generate certain lessons: to discredit and delegitimize the liberation movement and its political ideologies in the eyes of white South Africans and the international community. Some of the things so far told to the Court are true and some are untrue.
We felt that the country was drifting towards a civil war in which Blacks and Whites would fight each other. But White Governments remained unmoved, and the rights of Africans became less instead of becoming greater. Mandela was a strong leader in the drive towards unification and equality, and to this very day is still acknowledged as a driving force to the end of the apartheid in South Africa. Wherever I went I met sympathy for our cause and promises of help. Of course, these notes are merely summaries of the books I read and do not contain my personal views.
Because of this, there are many Africans who, today, tend to equate freedom with communism. I am the First Accused. Such widely different persons as Gandhi, Nehru, Nkrumah, and Nasser all acknowledge this fact. The Manifesto of Umkhonto was issued on the day that operations commenced. In these circumstances, it would take a brash young politician, such as I was in 1949, to proclaim that the Communists are our enemies. Up to that time I had been compelled to live indoors during the daytime and could only venture out under cover of darkness.
Each disturbance pointed clearly to the inevitable growth among Africans of the belief that violence was the only way out - it showed that a Government which uses force to maintain its rule teaches the oppressed to use force to oppose it. Mandela was being tried for sabotage, high treason, and a conspiracy to take over the established government; these charges were brought forth during a time a great discrimination against Africans, by whites. Problems began when the National Party---dominated by Afrikaans-speaking descendants of the Dutch settlers—came to power in South Africa. Nelson Mandela took the chance and fought for his rights and freedom. When he was released in 1990, he immediately came back into the fight he had left for so long. But to us the reason is obvious. Some of the things so far told to the Court are true and some are untrue.
I have always regarded myself, in the first place, as an African patriot. This then was the plan. Already scores of Africans had died as a result of racial friction. This is why persons such as 'Mr. Our march to freedom is irreversible.
We can no longer wait. The incidence of malnutrition and deficiency diseases is very high amongst Africans. Attacks on the economic life-lines of the country were to be linked with sabotage on Government buildings and other symbols of apartheid. All this has led me to feel that in my search for a political formula, I should be absolutely impartial and objective. Nelson Mandela 1918-2013 was born the son of a Tembu tribal chieftain at Qunu, near Umtata, in South Africa. The fight which held out prospects best for us and the least risk of life to both sides was guerrilla warfare.
Because of this, there are many Africans who, today, tend to equate freedom with communism. You may sample up to five stories, following which you will need to sign up for continued access. I must add that, whilst abroad, I had discussions with leaders of political movements in Africa and discovered that almost every single one of them, in areas which had still not attained independence, had received all forms of assistance from the socialist countries, as well as from the West, including that of financial support. My guardian was my cousin, who was the acting paramount chief of Thembuland, and I am related both to Sabata Dalindyebo, the present paramount chief, and to Kaiser Matanzima, the Chief Minister for the Transkei. I hold a bachelor's degree in arts and practised as an attorney in Johannesburg for a number of years in partnership with Oliver Tambo. The lack of human dignity experienced by Africans is the direct result of the policy of white supremacy.
I did not turn and face the gallery, though I felt all their eyes on me. African women want to be with their menfolk and not be left permanently widowed in the Reserves. But this is no reason as I shall presently explain why I should not use the place. During my childhood, there were many people that died, but since I did not know them well, I never bothered to think about their death. I returned to South Africa and reported to my colleagues on the results of my trip. He was accused of sabotage and other things due to a labor strike he coordinated.
But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die. Communists and others supported the movement, and we only wish that more sections of the community would join us. For thirty-seven years - that is until 1949 - it adhered strictly to a constitutional struggle. It calls for redistribution, but not nationalization, of land;it provides for nationalization of mines, banks, and monopoly industry, because big monopolies are owned by one race only, and without such nationalization racial domination would be perpetuated despite the spread of political power. Within the framework of the policy laid down by the National High Command, the Regional Commands had authority to select the targets to be attacked.