It could not be successful because the Governors of the concerned States started interfering unnecessarily in the workings of the governments. It may be noted that Italian philosopher Machiavelli lamented that corruption, degradation of politics and internecine war among the different provinces of Italy were the chief factors of the backwardness of Italy and failure of Italy to be influenced by renaissance which had overwhelmingly influenced other parts of Europe. Fifthly, the new political theory dismissed the idea of common good and an organic community. The important aspects of theory are- facts are systematically explained and after that proposition are made. For a long period the study essentially centred around the legislatures, executives and judiciaries, the three institutions for making, carrying out and interpreting the law.
It is not necessary that political theory can provide answers to all questions but it can at least tell us how one should go about the solution. This no doubt posits a challenge to political scientists and from the events it is clear they are performing their responsibility with a lot of success and have earned eulogy from various corners. Bernard Crick, a prominent English political scientist has specifically given stress on this aspect of political science. Industry has significant role in environmental protection. In this sense politics is used to mean as a type of instrument or vehicle to achieve definite purpose. A definition of politics includes all these because political science is not simply an academic subject but also a potential and necessary provider of guidelines for policy makers and researchers. There are many people in the world today who believe that man is not necessarily a political animal and he is also selfish but man prefers to live in the state because it is more advantageous for him to live there than outside it where lawlessness prevails.
It is said that the nomenclature Political Science owes its origin to William Godwin and Mary Wollstonecraft. Mackenzie also points out that a large number of natural scientists are taking more and more interests in political science. Hence it is a dynamic social science and its scope is ever expanding. Political theories that essentially morally function primarily determine moral guidelines and standards that are in accordance with moral norms. Webb couple and many other dignitaries were associated with this institution and they preferred the word science.
Owing to certain reasons it has been more successful in some countries while it is less successful in others. Assessment of the presence of pressure groups c. The significance of the Marxist approach is due to its emphasis on production and distribution of goods in assessing social changes and political revolutions. According to Van Dyke political theory also includes suggestion, recommendations and advices given by political scientists. There is no doubt that the functions and behaviour of all the above noted organs are changing with the change of time and attitude of men.
To arrive at it the political organisation must create a congenial atmosphere. Problem Regarding the Exact Name for this Science: The problem regarding the exact name for this science has raised a good deal of controversy. In short scope of environmental studies is broad based and it encompasses a large number of areas and aspects, broadly listed below:. Such experiments will continue to be made in political sphere. In Political Science we fail to frame such laws as never know any change and are always the same.
For the outlier case of India, practices of the Mogul Empire, British Imperial rule and the Caste System are quoted. It is very difficult to think of politics which does not envisage any type of disagreement. These are: a The method of simple agreement; b The method of single difference; c The double method of agreement or as Sir John Stuart Mill call it the joint method of agreement and difference; d The method of residues; and e The method of concomitant accompanying variations. Gilchrist writes: The scope of Political Science is determined by the inquiries that arise in connection with the State. The emphasis is on procedures and institutions through which authoritative decisions are made and the outcome of such decision-making in the form of rule-making, rule-application and rule-adjudication, to use terms broader and more meaningful than the traditional legislative, executive and judicial functions. The various disciplines of social science draw their sustenance from the society, they deal with the problems of society and they invest their energy and intellect to the solution of manifold problems from which the society suffers.
Under this heading we also study how States in ancient times were formed out of small tribes and how they became big national states later on. Even the ordinary citizen, making up his mind whether to vote for A or B, may be invisibly trying to answer a sort of question which Plato and Aristotle had tried to answer over 2,000 years ago, namely, who is the best form of government? The normative approach is rooted in theory and oriented towards ideals and norms. Laswell pronounced politics as the process of determining and sharing of power whereas Robert Dahl maintained that politics involves power rule and authority to a significant extent. These inquiries may broadly be classed under the State as it is, the State as it has been, the State as it ought to be. As a result of this venture and new outlook certain terms which were generally used by other sciences and are being increasingly used by them have conveniently found their places in politics. Basically, the study of comparative politics involves mindful comparisons in studying; political experiences, institutions, behaviour and processes of major systems of government.
Now history has become more scientific than ever before. Philosophical approach explores the meaning and central theme of these books as well as the exact purpose of the authors. The nature of man changes with the changing conditions. His analogy between a state and a living organism suffered from two main weaknesses. It includes matters concerning the allocation and transfer of power in decision making, the roles and systems of governance including governments and international organizations, political behavior and public policies.
The trend of an idealist state as set by classical political theory had clear reflection on later political thinking. Hence model resembles something which is quite big or large. Two, Controversy is a very important element of politics. These ideas stood on the way of independent status and spontaneous development of politics. The government has been, to a very great extent, successful in eradicating untouchability from Indian society. Assessment of the existence of interest groups b.