Gryphius and Lohenstein and the satire of J. The dado is lower and less commonly used. At the court of the Roi Soleil a Baroque style was developed which was more restrained than the Italian: ground-plans were less complex, and facades more severe, with greater respect for the details and proportions of the traditional architectural orders, and violent effects and flagrant caprices were eschewed. This characteristic feature was also used in pediments the decorative element above a door, a window or a whole building. The latter responded with the Counter-Reformation, which was a series of reforms, but also a display of power and wealth meant to reaffirm the church's status in society and faith.
Interiors were full of bold colors and decoration. Even the roof peaks are adorned with bronze filigree. Filippo Juvarra created the Basilica di Superga in 1718 and the Palazzina di Stupinigi in 1729. As Italian Baroque influences spread across the Pyrenees Mountains, they gradually superseded in popularity the restrained classical approach of Juan de Herrera, which had been in vogue since the late 16th century. Caravaggio and his early followers were especially significant for their naturalistic treatment of unidealized, ordinary people. Nicholas Hawksmoor 1661-1736 had been employed by Christopher Wren from the age of 18 and assisted him until 1718. In France and Italy the baroque had by 1725 been overshadowed by its outgrowth, the rococo, in music, 18th-century reaction against the baroque style.
Gradually the massive forms of the baroque yielded to the lighter, more graceful outlines of the rococo. Architecture Makes a Statement Have you ever stood in front of a church and been awed by its monumental architecture? Baroque tenets were enthusiastically adopted in staunchly Roman Catholic Spain, however, particularly in architecture. The most distinctive element of French Baroque architecture is the double-sloped mansard roof a French innovation. That's why classical architecture - Greek, Roman - has endured through the ages. The focus of the florid ornamentation is an elaborately sculptured surround to a main doorway.
At first the term merely distinguished an instrumental piece from a piece with voice, which was called a cantata. When you approach the city from the east, you look down into a large bowl-shaped valley that seems to be full of pale honey. It is characterized by interpenetration of oval spaces, curved surfaces, and conspicuous use of decoration, sculpture, and color. The centrally planned church, either circular or Greek cross, was used by early and High Renaissance architects to express their ideal of perfect lucidity and order. In the United States, the Beaux-Arts style was introduced by 1827-95 and 1859-1934. The ground-plans common to the architecture of the Renaissance were the square, the circle, and the Greek cross - a cross, that is, with equal arms.
Baroque architects understood it as a single mass to be shaped according to a number of requirements. The baroque style is characterized by an emphasis on unity among the arts. Every window offers new vistas. . Outstanding practitioners in Italy included , , , and. Each church that was built by Wren displays Baroque aesthetics in its dynamic structure and multiple changing views. As a result the traditional rules which determined the planning of these parts became less important or was completely disregarded.
At the Church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, we can see how straight lines were replaced with delicate curves, giving the building its distinctively Baroque feel. Many factors contributed to this result, chief among which were the Moorish tradition, still alive in the Iberian peninsula, and the influences of the , with its fantastic decorative vocabulary. A remarkable convergence of Spanish, French, and Dutch Baroque aesthetics may be seen in the Abbey of Averbode 1667. This obliquity escapes the casual glance, which unconsciously transfers the smaller distance between the ends of the pathways to their starting-point, so that the facade seems narrower and, owing to the upward slope, also higher than it is in reality. All these confrontations and struggles resulted in a diverse social, religious and political landscape in 17th and 18th century Europe.
Baroque Painting Painters and sculptors built and expanded on the naturalistic tradition reestablished during the Renaissance. To this end the church adopted a conscious artistic program whose art products would make an overtly emotional and sensory appeal to the faithful. In Flanders , which was the richest imperial province of 17th century Spain, florid decorative detailing was more tightly knit to the structure, thus precluding concerns of superfluity. See also works by Wren's predecessor 1573-1652. Renaissance constructions, like many modern ones, were based on simple, elementary proportions and relationships; and their significance rested in the observer's appreciation of the harmony that united the various parts of the whole.
A number of fountains, more artistic sculpture than architecture, are also worth noting such as the Fontana Tritone and the Fontana della Baraccia. Bernini and St Peter's Basilica The history of St Peter's - the most important architectural example of - is in itself a history of the transition from Renaissance to Baroque, and is also a textbook example of , in both its structure and surroundings. History of Rococo Architecture Rococo, sometimes called Late Baroque, was a style found in decorative arts, architecture and fine arts. This sober brick Baroque of the 17th century is still well represented in the streets of the capital in palaces and squares. These classical motifs were, however, not strictly applied as they were by Inigo Jones but used rather freely and synthesized with elements of Elizabethan style architecture. Formerly a royal residence built for the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, the Palace of Caserta was one of the largest royal residences in the world.