Aristotle's sixfold classification is slightly different from the one found in by Plato. For the real difference between democracy and oligarchy is poverty and wealth. It is necessary, but that does not make it a part of household management any more than it makes medicine a part of household management just because health is necessary. It is fitted by portraying events which excite fear and pity in the mind of the observer to purify or purge these feelings and extend and regulate their sympathy. By this categorization of classes, the state is able to attain the greatest happiness.
A state ruled by the middle class can be most secure and can be the most law-abiding of practicable constitutions. Article shared by : 1. Art however is not limited to mere copying. The interests of the rich minority and poor majority can be balanced by allowing both factions a roughly equal amount of power. . He identified government with state. Aristotle's view of life was hierarchical.
This distinction is made on the basis of the relation between the legislature and the executive, as Marriot did. Trying to define it is very difficult. If his classification is accepted, we shall have to place Absolute Monarchy, Constitutional, Elected and Hereditary Monarchy in one and the same category. As far as the magistracy or the executive is concerned, he recommended that some should be elected out of all and some out of some, or again some by vote and others by lot. Most of the text of his two botanical works, On Plants De Historia Plantarum and The Causes of Plants De Causis Plantarum still exists, although only in Latin translations. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. If there is greater cooperation between the state and the individuals, and they are mutually complementary to each other, then the freedom of individual is in tandem with the law of the region, law is an instrument of self-realization, the standard of justice.
Finally, if forms were needed to explain our knowledge of particular objects, then forms must be used to explain our knowledge of objects of art; however, Platonists do not recognize such forms. This type of state is free from the extremes of oligarchy and democracy, because experience has shown that extreme form of government always breeds chaos and dangers. Andrea Cesalpino 1519-1603 was an Italian physician who created one of the first new systems of classifying plants since the time of Aristotle. Participation in the affairs of the government is open to persons who acquire property. For example, General Ayub Khan in Pakistan, Col. To serve this end the ideal state should be neither too great nor too small, but simply self-sufficient.
It must be something practical and human. Further, the lower items are inorganic and the higher are organic. The state is a development from the family through the village community, an offshoot of the family. An organism which does this well may be said to have a nutritional virtue. Classification of Constitution : Aristotle has classified the constitutions into two broad categories—right or ideal constitution or government, and wrong or perverted form of government.
When the state is situated in the hot zone, it is ideal for the non-indifferent cultural practices. For example, Great Britain is Monarchy, and the government in that country is Unitary and Parliamentary. The main advantage is that both common interest and virtue get priority. If a family happens to exceed the fixed size, then Aristotle suggested that birth control measures have to be initiated by the state. It should occupy a favorable position towards land and sea and consist of citizens gifted with the spirit of the northern nations, and the intelligence of the Asiatic nations. Forms are not causes of movement and alteration in the physical objects of sensation. He distinguishes between those who are slaves because the law says they are and those who are , saying the inquiry hinges on whether there are any such natural slaves.
They also achieve what they are capable of achieving only within the state. Now this question can be analyzed further, in terms of the other attributes of the genus. He recommends that care be taken to breed the right habits in children from the time they are in the womb and that when they mature they learn to hone their reason. Therefore, constitutions of different states are not supposed to be identical. However, everybody cannot attain this excellence. Rousseau also divided the governments into three kinds, viz. Hence, basically, there are three kinds of States.
If the supreme power is vested in the hands of the one man and is exercised for the good of community, it is monarchy. He feels that the winter is the best time of the marriage, while those who are moderate to physical and emotional formation will be restricted to the number of suitable children for child production. The combination of words gives rise to rational speech and thought, conveys a meaning both in its parts and as a whole. Aristotle then moves to the question of property in general, arguing that the acquisition of property does not form a part of household management oikonomike and criticizing those who take it too seriously. The second type of kingship is common among the barbarians and is a mixture of kingship and tyranny. As regards the animal, it can walk, resist and fight; while man can think.
For, it arrives at them only by a process of development in which it gradually clothes sense in thought, and unifies and interprets sense-presentations. These three elements are as follows: 1. Here, no property qualification is recommended. The state, we have already pointed out, is a composite whole. Modern history also illustrates this cycle of political changes to some extent.
For a fuller discussion of these topics, see the article. While assigning reason to the soul of humans, Aristotle describes it as coming from without, and almost seems to identify it with God as the eternal and omnipresent thinker. By the time Carl Carolus Linnaeus 1707-1778 was born, there were many systems of botanical classification in use, with new plants constantly being discovered and named. Aristotle was of the view that when the rulers aimed at the good of the community, the states would be a pure form of state. Only a polity can effectuate a balance and, hence, stability. Aristotle recognizes an active reason which makes objects of thought.